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Home About Cotton Textiles Reference Data

About Cotton Textiles Reference Data

Fabric Description

A plain woven fabric. 30s-40s yarns are used for warp and weft. The warp density is 58~72 ends, and that of weft is 56~70 fillings, both per 2.54 cm (1 inch). Grey cloth is called grey shirting, bleached is bleached shirting, plain-dyed is dyed shirting, printed is calico. Grey shirting is used sometimes, but many are bleached for use in shirts and underwear, and plain-dyed is mainly used for backing cloth. Calico has flower and grass patterns or a geometrical pattern in several colors, and used for ticking, furoshiki, and as a material for children’s wear.


A plain woven fabric; the warp is a dense construction of fine-count ends, while the weft is a less dense construction of coarser-count yarn. A fine rib-like pattern appears as the warp twists considerably where it crosses the weft, and the weft is mostly straight. A wide variety of yarn is used; the warp is 42s/2-60s/2 yarn or 42s-60s yarn, while about 42s yarn or 20s-40s yarn is used for weft. The per-inch yarn density for high-class poplin is 90-130 for warp and 50-60 for weft, and for a standard-class fabric 90-100 and 40-60 respectively. The main color is white, and there are also some stripe poplins using striped yarn and printed poplin. White and striped poplin are generally used for dress shirts, and printed poplin as a material for women’s and children’s summer wear.


The fabric construction is similar to poplin, but the rib pattern is not so clear as poplin, and the quality is higher. High-class broadcloth is made with combed yarn made of Egyptian or Sea Island cotton. The yarn is 80s/2-100s/2 for high-class poplin, and 120s/2 for the highest class. The standard class uses 40s-60s yarn (not combed), and has an appearance similar to poplin. The warp density is 100-140 per inch, while the weft density is about half. After weaving, the fabric is bleached and mercerized to obtain a lustrous surface, and then finished to have a softer feeling. The main color is white. Plain, printed and stripes are used for dress shirts and women’s summer wear.


The fabric is similar to shirting, but uses a coarser-count yarn in less density. It comes in grey, bleached, plain-dyeds and prints. As it is a cotton fabric of lower class, it is used mainly for beddings and bags.

Grey sheeting

This fabric is generally called tenjiku in Japan as it was imported from India. (India was called Tenjiku in Japan) Not clearly different from sheeting or heavy shirting, except that the yarn is slightly coarser. Grey sheeting is a slightly thicker than shirting. The grey cloth is used for wheat bags or as a curtain material. Bleached, plain-dyed and printed fabrics have the same applications as sheeting and heavy shirting.

Heavy shirting
The fabric has a texture between that of sheeting and shirting. A plain weave using 20s-24s yarn for both warp and weft, and the density per inch is 40~60 for warp and 52~66 for weft. The application of grey, bleached, plain-dyed and printed heavy shirting is the same as sheeting.

The fabric is a plain weave, or 1/2 or 2/2 twill. The warp is a 16s-20s yarn, and the weft is a low-twisted single 8s-12s yarn. A napped finishing is applied after weaving. There are single- and both-sided flannels. Applications are underwear, children’s outerwear, nightwear, dress linings, etc.


Also called menchijimi (cotton crepe) in Japan. A plain weave using hard-twisted yarn for weft to produce ‘Shibo’. (See explanation. below) The yarn is 20s-40s, or 80s/2-100s/2 for high-class crepe. A finer-count yarn can produce a smaller shibos for a high-class sophisticated appearance. The majority comes in white mainly for summer underwear. Those with the name of production districts, such as Sano-Chijimi and Iwakuni-Chijimi have been known since early times.


“Shibo” means corrugation, i.e. convexo-concave on the surface. There are many patterns. When two high-S-twist yarns and two high-Z-twist yarns are alternately used for warp, the surface of the fabric has many thinner shibos (called two-side shibo). When only one S-twist yarn or Z-twisted yarn is used for warp, a radial straight small shibo (called one-side shibo) appears. When 4~8 S-twist and Z-twist yarn are used alternately, big granulated shibo (elephant crepe, called uzura-chijimi) is produced on the surface.


A cotton 1/2 twill using 20s-40s yarn for both warp and weft. The texture is slightly heavier than shirting, and it comes in non-bleached, bleached, dyed and printed forms. Applications are extremely extensive, such as dresses, workwear, canvas shoes, beddings, etc.


A heavier-weight 2/1 or 2/2 twill fabric generally using 14s-18s yarn for both warp and weft. Those of 2/2 twill are especially called Unsai. There are grey cloth, bleached and dyed (generally in khaki), used for dresses, workwear, etc. Katsuragi is a type of drill; it is a 1/2, 2/2, or 1/3 twill made with 12s-20s yarn.


Satin fabric is woven so that either the warp or weft comes out on the fabric surface. Any fabric having a satin weave on only one side is not included in satin weaves.


Also called cotton velvet, velvet, karaten or kinuten (silk velvet), this kind of heavyweight pile fabric has a soft surface on one side where pile warps have cut and napped after weaving. There are a plain weave (called plain velveteen) and a 1/2 or 2/2 twill (called twill velveteen). Velveteen is widely used for women’s and children’s wear, hats, the pockets of garments, the head portion of futons, tabis (Japanese style socks), cosmetic powder-puffs, lining of cosmetic boxes, etc.


A kind of pile fabric. Because weaving points of pile warp yarns line up straight with the weft, fluffs come out and streak in a longitudinal direction. The wale is about 2-3 mm in general. Corduroys are usually dyed in black or dark blue, and used for pants, workwear and tabis. Sometimes dyed for applications in women’s wear.

Shiro momen

A narrow-width cotton plain weave made of 16-30 count yarn. Heavyweight types are used as bleach cloth and washcloth, and lighter weights for yukatas (summer kimonos).


A lightweight, coarse-texture, plain weave made of 30-42 count yarn. The density per inch is 30-45 for warp and 30-40 for weft, and the fabric is scoured and bleached after weaving. Gauze is mainly used for underwear, handkerchiefs and hygienic good including gauzes or bandages.


A striped cotton plain weave. Colored yarn is used to produce cross stripes, or check patterns are formed by the intersection of coarse-count yarns. 20s-40s yarn is used for both warp and weft, and yarns with good color fastness are used to prevent color fading after washing. Gingham is mainly used for women’s and children’s summer wear, aprons and shirts (especially sportswear).


A heavyweight twill or satin weave using color yarn of up to 20 count for warp, and for weft, bleached or colored yarn of finer count that the warp. Sometimes called jeans.


Flannel uses a single- or two-folded yarn of 14-count or finer for warp, and a 8-21 count yarn or low-twisted two-folded yarn of up to 40 count for weft. The density per inch is 36-40 for warp, and 40-60 for weft. The majority of the fabrics are made of two-folded yarn. After weaving, the yarns are raised on one side or both sides of the fabric. Main applications are apparel and filtering cloths.


The name comes from a French place name “Chambray”. Usually blue-dyed yarn is used for warp, and bleached or non-bleached yarn for weft to produce a pepper-and-salt appearance. Red, green and other colors are also used for warp yarn. Applications include women’s and children’s wear, shirts, backing cloths, etc.


Shirting with a calico finishing, which bleaches and washes the shirting and, after washing, the fabric is back-sized and calendared to obtain luster. Applications are dress shirts, collars, handkerchiefs, white tabis, backing cloths, etc.


A lightweight fabric similar to shirting. Egyptian cotton is used for both warp and weft; 60 count for warp and 50 count for weft. The weft density is 90~100 per inch. A cambric finishing is applied after weaving. Main applications are garments and handkerchiefs.


A lightweight low-density fabric using hard-twisted two-folded yarn for both warp and weft, and finished like a hemp fabric. The type using hard-twisted single yarn for warp is called half-voile, and that using only single yarn for both warp and weft is called single yarn voile.


A lightweight fabric using single yarn of 50 count or finer for both warp and weft. The yarn density per inch is 160 or more for both warp and weft, and after woven, it is bleached or plain dyed, printed, and then sized slightly. It has a feeling like a linen fabric. Main applications are embroidery lace, handkerchiefs, underwear, artificial flowers, decorations, etc.


A lawn fabric with organdie finishing (simulated processing) to obtain a hard and lustrous appearance. Applications are the collars and cuffs of women’s and children’s wear.


Cotton muslin is a lightweight and soft fabric using single yarn of 80 count or higher for both warp and weft. The density per inch is more than 160. In the broad sense, it is similar to lawn and sheeting. Staple-fiber muslin is soft and uses 30s, 60s/2 or 80s/2 for both warp and weft. The density per inch is more than 110. Applications are extensive depending on the yarn used, but are mainly curtains, underwear, dresses, backing cloths and industrial use.


The name is derived from Baptidte, its original production district in France. Originally, it was a lightweight linen fabric, but is currently made with nearly all fibers, and are all soft lightweight fabrics made with fine-count yarn, and applications are underwear, handkerchiefs, backing cloths, etc.


A 2/2 twill fabric. The twill line is in 45-degree angle, and the direction is opposite on front and back. Its representative is worsted serge, and those having a similar appearance and texture are staple-fiber serge, blended nylon serge or vinylon serge. Main application is garments.


Cotton gabardine is a type of narrow twill, and has rich luster as hard-twisted yarn is used for warp. The warp is 40s/2-44s/2, or 20-count cotton yarn, and the density is 116-146 for warp and 50~60 for weft. The weave is 2/2, 3/1 or 3/2 twill, and twill line is more than a 45-degree angle. After both sides of the fabric are singed, it is then mercerized. General applications are apparel and raincoats.


A 20-count yarn is used for both warp and weft, and the density per inch is 80 for warp and 40 for weft. The weave is mainly 2/1 twill, and applications are bed sheets, etc.


In general, two paralleled yarns are used for this fabric, but some weavers use color yarn for stripe patterns, or dobby for other patterns. The warp is a 24-30 count yarn, and weft is a 12-16 count yarn. The density is usually 70-100 for warp and 44-50 for weft.

Crepe yoryu

A crepe fabric using for weft a hard-twisted yarn that shrinks in the processing stage to produce a naturally corrugated crepe. The crepe is produced by two methods: one is to put the fabric into hot water to produce a natural crepe, and the other is produced compulsorily using an embossing roller. A 10-15 count yarn is used. This fabric is widely used for summer underwear, dresses, night wear, etc.


A variation of dobby fabric. The warp yarn irregularly appears to create s shade and shadow pattern like flowing water. The yarn is mainly of 20-30 count. Printed niagara is used for women’s and children’s wear and interior goods.


A type of lightweight plain weave mainly for women’s summer wear. Two types of warp yarn with different tensile strengths are set in array, which produce two different patterns by contraction of the warp yarns. Yarn shrinkage in the direction of warp creates both a shrunk stripe portion and a non-shrunk portion. It comes in gray cloth, plain-dyeds, stripes, plaits, etc. In addition to cotton, it can be woven in silk or rayon.


A type of poplin fabric. This heavyweight fabric uses an especially coarse-count warp yarn to produce wales on its surface. It is usually plain dyed or printed, and used for women’s wear, etc.


A high-density plain weave having low wale like thin amber. Main applications are women’s wear, ribbons, umbrella cloths, etc. The name of “taffeta” is said to have come from the Persian word “Taftah” (high-class silk fabric).


Derivative weave or low-density plain weave using poral yarn for both warp and weft. Applications are summer wear, etc. Poral yarn is made by hard-twisting fine wadding yarn, coarse fancy yarn and fine lapped yarn together. The fabric resembles a crepe.


A silk fabric with high warp density or a similar one having weft rib. A suspending yarn is placed among every four to six warp yarns to make the fabric strong. The fabric is strong enough to be used for women’s spring coats, business suits and other garments.


A lightweight worsted fabric or of similar weaves, mainly for summer wear.


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